Sun Feb 14 22:34:12 SGT 2016  
SINGAPORE
GUM™
    Genital Warts
SINGAPORE GUM™
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STD testing: Full & comprehensive sexually transmitted disease testing.

Genital Warts | SINGAPORE GUM™

Summary

Genital Warts | SINGAPORE GUM™ @singaporegum_com: Genital warts, Singapore. Private & confidential service.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
SINGAPORE GUM™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: www.shimclinic.com
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Description

Table of Contents

Genital warts: penile warts / vaginal warts / anal warts / anogenital warts / venereal warts / condyloma / condylomata acuminata / "cauliflower" sex disease.

References

Warts - on male sex organ Genital warts appear within 3 months after sexual contact with an infected person.

Genital warts:

  • are usually soft, pink cauliflower-like growths or flesh-coloured bumps on the sex organs
  • may also be hard and smooth
  • occur alone or in groups
  • tend to recur after treatment
  • increase the risk of cervical cancer in women.


Warts - on female sex organ An infected woman may infect her newborn during childbirth.

A person with genital warts can infect others through sexual contact.



Genital warts treatment / HPV treatment

HPV / human papillomavirus.

  • 120 known human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • 51 HPV types, and 3 subtypes are genital HPV as they infect the genital mucosa.
  • 31 genital HPV types are low risk
  • 6 genital HPV types are intermediate risk
  • 17 genital HPV types are high risk
They cause Genital HPV types, cancer risk, vaccine and test coverage
Type
Species
Risk
Cervarix
Gardasil
Gardasil-9
DigeneHR
DigenePS
CobasHPV
Digene
HybriBio
PapilloCheck
InnoLiPA
LinearArray
61 3 L ----------+-
72 3 L ----------+-
81 3 L -------+--+-
83 3 L ----------+-
84 3 L ----------+-
62 3 L ----------+-
CP6108 3 L ----------+-
71 15 L ---------++-
26 5 H ---------++-
51 5 H ---+-++++++-
69 5 H ---------++-
82 5 H --------+++-
IS39 5 H ----------+-
18 7 H +++++++++++-
39 7 H ---+-++++++-
45 7 H --+++++++++-
59 7 H ---+-++++++-
68 7 H ---+-++++++-
70 7 H --------+++-
53 6 H -------++++-
56 6 H ---+-++++++-
66 6 H -----+-++++-
54 13 L ---------++-
42 1 L ------+++-+-
40 8 L --------+++-
43 8 L ------++++--
6 10 L -++---+++++-
11 10 L -++---+++++-
44 10 L ------++++--
74 10 L ---------+--
16 9 H +++++++++++-
31 9 H --++-++++++-
33 9 H --++-++++++-
35 9 H ---+-++++++-
52 9 H --++-++++++-
58 9 H --++-++++++-
67 9 H ----------+-
73 11 H --------+++-

Legend: 71 (CP 8061), 73/MM9, 81 (CP 8304), 82 (MM4), 82 (IS 39), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), 89 (CP 6108)

References

Cervical cancer HPV vaccine (previously known as cervical cancer vaccine) types:
  • Gardasil® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant]
  • Cervarix® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant]
  • V503 [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Nonavalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) Vaccine, Recombinant]
References Gardasil® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] References Cervarix® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] References V503 [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Nonavalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) Vaccine, Recombinant] - to be released in 2013 STD vaccine / hepatitis vaccine shot/jab/injection to prevent some STDs

Vaccine Against Disease Age D
o
s
e
s
Dose schedule Price
per
dose
(SG$)
Havrix™ 1440 Adult Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A ≥19y 2 m 0 & 6-12 $90/=
Twinrix® Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
1-15y 2 m 0, 6-12 $135/=
≥16y 3 m 0, 1, 6
4 d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Inactivated / Fractional / Protein / Subunit / Recombinant
Engerix™-B 20 μg Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B 11-15y 2 m 0, & 6 $50/=
≥20y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
4 m 0, 1, 2, & 12 or
d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Gardasil® HPV
types 6, 11, 16, & 18
Genital warts
Cervical cancer
9-26y 3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$195/=
Cervarix® HPV
types 16, & 18
(31, 33, & 45)
10-25y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
m 0, 1, & 5
m 0, 2½, 12
$195/=
V503 HPV
types 6, 11, 16, 18,
31, 33, 45,
52, & 58
3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$???/=

HPV test for men/women.

  • Digene® High-Risk HPV DNA Test
  • Digene® HPV DNA Test
  • Digene® HPV Genotyping PS Test
  • Hybribio®
    • HPV GenoArray Test Kit
    • Detects 15 high-risk HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68. And 6 low-risk HPV types: 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, CP8304
    • Able to differentiate which types are positive.
    • May be available in Singapore soon.
  • Cobas® HPV Test
    • Cobas® HPV Test
    • Detects 14 high-risk HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68
    • The test specifically identifies (types) HPV 16 and HPV 18, while concurrently detecting the rest of the high risk types (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68)
    • Cost is SG$200/=
  • LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test
    • LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test
    • Identifies 37 high-risk HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73 (MM9), 82 (MM4) low-risk HPV genotypes 6, 11, 26, 40, 42, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62, 64, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 81, 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39, and CP6108
  • INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra
    • INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra
    • Identifies 15 high-risk HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, 82) 3 probable high-risk HPV genotypes (26, 53, 66) 7 low-risk HPV genotypes (6, 11, 40, 43, 44, 54, 70) and some additional types (69, 71, 74).
  • PapilloCheck®
    • PapilloCheck®
    • Identifies 24 hiv-risk HPV types 16 18 31 33 35 39 45 51 52 53 56 58 59 66 68 70 73 82 and low-risk HPV types 6 11 40 42 43 44

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception (females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing.
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception (females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute rapid HIV test - SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute rapid HIV test - OraQuick®:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

[Human papillomavirus and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region : Prognostic, therapeutic and prophylactic implications].
Sat, 13 Feb 2016 20:12:02 +0100 | HNO
Authors: Reuschenbach M, Wagner S, Würdemann N, Sharma SJ, Prigge ES, Sauer M, Wittig A, Wittekindt C, von Knebel Doeberitz M, Klussmann JP

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) 18 genes polymorphisms are correlated with susceptibility to HPV infection in patients with and without cervical intraepithelial lesion.
Sat, 13 Feb 2016 17:20:03 +0100 | Annals of Human Biology
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest an association between two TNFA SNPs and susceptibility to HPV infection in women from Northeast Brazil. The results need to be functionally validated and replicated in other populations with different ethnic backgrounds.

Long-term costs of introducing HPV-DNA post-treatment surveillance to national cervical cancer screening in Ireland.
Sat, 13 Feb 2016 13:54:02 +0100 | Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
DISCUSSION: This analysis provided valuable information to policy makers contributing to the introduction of co-testing for post-treatment surveillance (PTS) in Ireland.

Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Anal Canal: A Low-grade Lesion That Can Mimic a High-grade Lesion
Sat, 13 Feb 2016 09:35:06 +0100 | The American Journal of Surgical Pathology
In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions among homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, we identified 15 examples of papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) in anal biopsy samples. PIM has previously been described in the cervix, but not in the anal canal. PIM is a form of exophytic low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (eLSIL) also known as condyloma. In contrast to the maturing keratinocytes and koilocytosis seen in conventional eLSIL, the slender papillary structures of PIM have a surface population of immature squamous cells. In our anal samples PIM was characterized by close proximity to conventional eLSIL, was negative for p16INK4A (p16) expression, and revealed the presence of a single low-risk HPV genotype (either 6 or 11) in laser...

The Role of Physician Recommendations and Public Policy in Human Papillomavirus Vaccinations
Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100 | Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Conclusion

Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low
Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100 | European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Abstract

Aberrant Expression of the Cell Polarity Regulator aPKCλ/ι is Associated With Disease Progression in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN): A Possible Marker for Predicting CIN Prognosis
Thu, 11 Feb 2016 20:34:52 +0100 | International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Atypical protein kinase C λ/ι (aPKCλ/ι) is a regulator of epithelial cellular polarity. It is also overexpressed in several cancers and functions in cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, we hypothesized that aPKCλ/ι may be involved in development and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the precancerous disease of cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus. To do this, we investigated the relationship between aPKCλ/ι expression and CIN. aPKCλ/ι expression level and subcellular localization were assessed in 192 CIN biopsy samples and 13 normal epithelial samples using immunohistochemistry. aPKCλ/ι overexpression (normal epithelium, 7.7%; CIN1, 41.7%; CIN2/3, 76.4%) and aPKCλ/ι nuclear localization (normal epithelium, 0.0%; CIN1, 36.9%; CIN2/3, 78...

Pseudomyxoma-type Invasion in Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinomas of Endometrium and Cervix: A Report of 2 Cases
Thu, 11 Feb 2016 20:34:52 +0100 | International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
This paper presents a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical report of 2 gastrointestinal-type tumors, one in the endometrium and the other in the cervix. Both showed extensive invasion into the pelvic structures with acellular mucin, identical to pseudomyxoma but in the absence of appendiceal or ovarian tumors. Case 1 was an 81-yr-old female with a Stage III endometrial gastrointestinal-type adenocarcinoma who had had an endometrial polyp with intestinal metaplasia 4 years previously. Case 2 was a 68-yr-old female with Stage IIIB endocervical gastrointestinal-type adenocarcinoma. Both were associated with a pseudomyxoma type of invasion, which in the endometrial case was transmural through the myometrium, and in the cervical case involved parametria, pelvic floor, and lymph nodes. Immu...

Human papillomavirus (HPV): college male's knowledge, perceived risk, sources of information, vaccine barriers and communication.
Thu, 11 Feb 2016 19:16:02 +0100 | Journal of Men's Health
CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs providing information about HPV, the HPV vaccine, and communication skills training are needed for male college students, parents, and healthcare providers. Findings from this study will guide the development of HPV vaccine messages and educational programs that should be tested in future research.

Predictors of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men
Thu, 11 Feb 2016 03:34:10 +0100 | Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Conclusions: Findings highlight potential disparities in HPV vaccine uptake, as well as disparities in provider recommendation practices for HPV vaccination. Future interventions should aim to clarify misconceptions, modify psychosocial beliefs, and address barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine uptake specific to young MSM. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)