Tue Nov 21 01:16:31 +08 2017  
SINGAPORE
GUM™
    Hepatitis A Vaccine
SINGAPORE GUM™
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis): Stop HIV infection within 3 days after unprotected sex.
HIV test: 20 minute rapid test to accurately detect HIV infection 28 days after unprotected sex.
STD testing: Full & comprehensive sexually transmitted disease testing.

Hepatitis A Vaccine | SINGAPORE GUM™

Summary

Hepatitis A Vaccine | SINGAPORE GUM™ @singaporegum_com: Hepatitis A Inactivated vaccine jab/shot/injection schedule, to vaccinate against the hepatitis A virus, to immunise against Hepatitis A infection of the liver, Singapore. Private & confidential service.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
SINGAPORE GUM™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: www.shimclinic.com
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Description

Contents

Hepatitis A vaccination should be considered for individuals aged ≥1 year who are travelling to countries or areas with moderate to high risk of infection. Those at high risk of acquiring the disease should be strongly encouraged to be vaccinated regardless of where they travel.

Two types of HAV vaccines are currently available internationally:

1) Formaldehyde-inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccines. Inactivated HAV vaccines are used in most countries. Monovalent inactivated HAV vaccines are available in paediatric dose (0.5 ml) for children aged >1 year to 15 years, and in adult dose (1 ml).

2) Live attenuated vaccines (based on H2 and LA-1 HAV strains). These vaccines are manufactured and used mainly in China and sporadically in the private sector in India.

Inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are safe and highly effective. Two doses are necessary to promote long-term protection. Results from mathematical models indicate that, after completion of the primary two-dose series, anti-HAV antibodies may persist for 25 years or more. Serological testing to assess antibody levels after vaccination is not indicated. The Chinese live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines have been shown to be safe and highly protective (95%) against clinical infection for at least 3 years.

A combination hepatitis A/typhoid (Vi CPS ) vaccine, administered as a single dose, confers high levels of protection against both these waterborne diseases.

A combination vaccine that provides protection against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B should be considered for travellers who may be exposed to both organisms (see under Hepatitis B vaccines).

People born and raised in developing countries, and those born before 1945 in industrialized countries, have usually been HAV-infected in childhood and are likely to be immune. For such individuals, it may be cost-effective to test for antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) so that unnecessary vaccination can be avoided.

Type of vaccine: Inactivated or live, both given i.m.

Number of doses: Inactivated vaccine: two; live vaccine: one

Schedule: Inactivated vaccine: two doses, the second dose normally 6 months after the first. If needed, this interval may be extended to 18–36 months).
Live vaccine: one dose. Minimum age for HAV vaccination is 1 year.

Boosters: May not be necessary

Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to previous dose

Adverse reactions: Inactivated vaccine: mild local reaction of short duration, mild systemic reaction. Live vaccine: few reported

Before departure: Inactivated and live vaccines: protection is achieved 2–4 weeks after first dose. Given the long incubation period of hepatitis A (average 2–4 weeks), the vaccine can be administered up to the day of departure and still protect travellers.

Recommended for: All non-immune travellers to countries or areas at risk

Special precautions: None

STD vaccine / hepatitis vaccine shot/jab/injection to prevent some STDs

Vaccine Against Disease Age D
o
s
e
s
Dose schedule Price
per
dose
(SG$)
Havrix™ 1440 Adult Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A ≥19y 2 m 0 & 6-12 $90/=
Twinrix® Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
1-15y 2 m 0, 6-12 $135/=
≥16y 3 m 0, 1, 6
4 d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Inactivated / Fractional / Protein / Subunit / Recombinant
Engerix™-B 20 μg Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B 11-15y 2 m 0, & 6 $50/=
≥20y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
4 m 0, 1, 2, & 12 or
d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Gardasil® HPV
types 6, 11, 16, & 18
Genital warts
Cervical cancer
9-26y 3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$195/=
Cervarix® HPV
types 16, & 18
(31, 33, & 45)
10-25y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
m 0, 1, & 5
m 0, 2½, 12
$195/=
V503 HPV
types 6, 11, 16, 18,
31, 33, 45,
52, & 58
3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$???/=

Hepatitis Vaccine Schedule

Hepatitis A
antibody
test
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
0 mo.1 mo.6 mo.7 mo.
00Twinrix®
vaccine
1st dose
Twinrix®
vaccine
2nd dose
Twinrix®
vaccine
3rd dose
Hepatitis A&B
antibody
test
0<100Twinrix®
vaccine
1st booster
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
Hepatitis A
vaccine
2nd dose
Hepatitis A
antibody
test
0≥100Hepatitis A
vaccine
1st dose
Hepatitis A
vaccine
2nd dose
Hepatitis A
antibody
test
+0Hepatitis B
vaccine
1st dose
Hepatitis B
vaccine
2nd dose
Hepatitis B
vaccine
3rd dose
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
+<100Hepatitis B
vaccine
1st booster
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
+≥100

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the Hepatitis B virus and is usually screened for by detecting HBsAg in the blood. Immunity may be discerned by detecting HBsAb, and if absent, the Hepatitis B vaccine or Twinrix® vaccine may be given.

  • The hepatitis B virus is 100 times more infectious than HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and infects about 10 times more people than HIV worldwide.
  • Hepatitis B virus infects the liver, and more than 350 million people in the world are lifelong hepatitis B virus carriers.
  • Long-term hepatitis B virus infection causes at least one million premature deaths every year from cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. It is second only to tobacco as the leading cause of cancer in humans.
  • Among the Hepatitis B carriers, 25% will develop serious liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The hepatitis B virus can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth, 1 in 20 Singaporeans are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus.
TORCH

TORCH complex is a medical acronym for a set of perinatal infections (i.e. infections that are passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus), that can lead to severe fetal anomalies or even fetal loss.
Other agents are:

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception (females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing.
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception (females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute rapid HIV test - SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute rapid HIV test - OraQuick®:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

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Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Pentavalent combination vaccines perform a key role in increasing vaccine coverage rate; and provide an efficient and reliable method of implementing WHO recommendations for controlling diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Hib infections on a worldwide basis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Hepatitis E vaccine - where are we today?
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Abstract: Outbreaks and sporadic cases of hepatitis E occur globally with large epidemics occurring in resource-limited regions where there is over-crowding, unsanitary conditions and poor health services including refugee camps and internally displaced populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the virus infects 20 million people each year of which 3 million are acute hepatitis cases and 56,600 die. Fulminant hepatic failure is reported in those infected in the third trimester of pregnancy in some regions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Hospital based sentinel surveillance of bacterial meningitis in India
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Pentavalent vaccine (a combination vaccine which protects against five killer diseases- diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B) is being introduced in various states of India as a part of Universal Immunization Programme. In this context it is critical to establish sentinel sites across India for surveillance of H.influenzae type B meningitis and use this opportunity also for surveillance of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Keeping this in mind a hospital-based sentinel surveillance network was established at 11 places across the country and this study reports the results of first three years of this surveillance program (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Upsurge in vaccine preventable hepatitis A virus infection in adult patients from a tertiary care hospital of North India
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Prevalence of acute viral hepatitis A among adult in developing country is low due to pre exposure of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) during childhood and adolescence. An increase in acute viral hepatitis A infection among admitted adult patients is being observed in this centre. Hence,study done to know the prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in adult patients of acute hepatitis admitted in Gastroenterology Department, Nehru Hospital, PGIMER, Chandigarh. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Identification of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and viral antigens in healthcare workers who presented low to moderate levels of anti-HBs after HBV vaccination
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Worldwide, healthcare workers (HCW)s show different levels of response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. One of the factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness may be the existence of current or past HBV infection. Regardless of the presence of HBsAg (overt infection), occult HBV infection (OBI, defined as presence of HBV DNA in the absence of HBsAg), might be also accounted in some non-or hypo-response cases. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Coinfection of Schistosoma Species with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Viruses.
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 10:25:02 +0100 | Advances in Parasitology
Authors: Abruzzi A, Fried B, Alikhan SB

Factors associated with HIV and HBV co-infection in Northern Thailand
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Conclusions Our findings suggest that having a good education and having a good immune status are a protective factor of HIV/HBV co-infection. A practical approach would be a provision of wide access to general and sex education on the risk and prevention of HIV, HBV, and a promotion of HBV immunization. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)

Committee Opinion No. 661: Integrating Immunizations Into Practice.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:43:02 +0100 | Obstetrics and Gynecology
Authors:

Committee Opinion No. 661 Summary: Integrating Immunizations Into Practice.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:43:02 +0100 | Obstetrics and Gynecology
Authors:

Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination Coverage in Medical, Nursing, and Paramedical Students: A Cross-Sectional, Multi-Centered Study in Greece.
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 21:30:04 +0100 | Physica Medica
Authors: Papagiannis D, Tsimtsiou Z, Chatzichristodoulou I, Adamopoulou M, Kallistratos I, Pournaras S, Arvanitidou M, Rachiotis G