Wed Jul 29 01:42:11 SGT 2015  
SINGAPORE
GUM™
    HIV PCR Test
SINGAPORE GUM™
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis): Stop HIV infection within 3 days after unprotected sex.
HIV test: 20 minute rapid test to accurately detect HIV infection 28 days after unprotected sex.
STD testing: Full & comprehensive sexually transmitted disease testing.

HIV PCR Test | SINGAPORE GUM™

Summary

HIV PCR Test | SINGAPORE GUM™ @singaporegum_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
SINGAPORE GUM™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV PCR Test | SINGAPORE GUM™
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Description

Table of Contents

HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection:

These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.

Kaposi's sarcoma Remember, there is no HIV cure.

HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.

  • 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
  • 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
References HIV Test

Window
period
Test
Notes Sampling Method
Time to Results
Cost / Price
0-72 hours
No test available
2 weeks (as short as 10-12 days)
HIV DNA test
  • A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) for HIV-1 proviral DNA, therefore a HIV DNA Test.
  • Method: Proviral DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA Test, V1.5) This test uses primers SK145 and SKCC1B to define a sequence of 155 nucleotides within a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 gag gene.
  • Usually used for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in neonates born to HIV+ mothers. As maternal antibodies circulate in the child for several months, the HIV antibody test would be positive.
  • Also used for early HIV diagnosis in adults.
Venipuncture
(Monday-Friday
before 10am)
1-2 weeks
SG$876/=
1 month
HIV combo test
Fingerprick
20 minute
HIV rapid test
SG$150/=
1 month
HIV duo test
Venipuncture

1-2 days
SG$48/=
3 months
OraQuick®
HIV oral test /
HIV saliva test /
Fingerprick
20 minute
HIV rapid test
SG$50/=
3 months
HIV blood test
Venipuncture
1-2 days
SG$12/=
HIV
confirmation
HIV western blot test
Venipuncture
1-2 weeks
SG$275/=
HIV
follow-up
HIV RNA test
Venipuncture
(Monday-Friday
before 10am)
1-2 weeks
SG$717/=

HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:

  1. 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
  2. 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
  3. 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
  4. 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:

Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.

References

HIV Risk (2009 figures)

Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events

Activity Risk-per-exposure
Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries 0.04% (1:2380)
Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries 0.08% (1:1234)
Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries 0.38% (1:263)
Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries 0.30% (1:333)
Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic 0.07% (1:1428)
Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease 0.55% (1:180)
Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status 0.27% (1:370)
Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive 0.82% (1:123)
Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status 0.18% (1:555)
Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status 0.06% (1:1666)
Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status 0.04% (1:2500)
Receptive fellatio Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500)
Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy 0.8% (1:125)
Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 0.1% (1:1000)
Injecting drug use Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41)
Needlestick injury, no other risk factors 0.13% (1:769)
Blood transfusion with contaminated blood 92.5% (9:10)

Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5

References

  1. Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
  2. Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
  3. Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
  4. Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
  5. Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
  6. HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure

HIV Risk (2005 figures)

Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*

Exposure routeRisk per 10,000
exposures
to an infected source
%
Blood transfusion900090
Needle-sharing injection-drug use670.67
Receptive anal intercourse500.5
Percutaneous needle stick300.3
Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse100.1
Insertive anal intercourse6.50.065
Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse50.05
Receptive oral intercourse†10.01
Insertive oral intercourse†0.50.005
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.

References

HIV risk (2002 figures)

HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)

HIV Risk Factors HIV Transmission Probability
Needle stick injury3 1/300
Receptive anal intercourse4 1/100
Receptive vaginal intercourse5 1/1000
Insertive vaginal intercourse4 1/2000
Insertive anal intercourse4 1/2500
Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 1/2500
Sharing needles6 1/150

References

  1. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
  2. Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
  3. Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
  4. Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
  5. Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
  6. Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.

Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:

  1. less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
    and
  2. the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
    and
  3. the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
    and
  4. mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.

For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.

The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.

Algorithm for evaluation and treatment of possible nonoccupational HIV exposures

References

Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH

TORCH complex is a medical acronym for a set of perinatal infections (i.e. infections that are passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus), that can lead to severe fetal anomalies or even fetal loss.
Other agents are:

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception (females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing.
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception (females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute rapid HIV test - SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute rapid HIV test - OraQuick®:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

Paediatric HIV treatment failure: a silent epidemic.
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 19:38:02 +0100 | Journal of the International AIDS Society
Authors: Bernheimer JM, Patten G, Makeleni T, Mantangana N, Dumile N, Goemaere E, Cox V

Forced Sexual Experiences and Sexual Situation Self‐Efficacy Among South African Youth
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 18:11:14 +0100 | Journal of Research on Adolescence
Nearly 20% of South African youth experience forced or coerced sexual intercourse. Understanding the factors associated with forced sex is important for informing prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual violence and HIV and AIDS. Multilevel regression models test the association between sexual situation self‐efficacy and forced sex among 2,893 South African adolescents. Findings suggest that youth are more likely to experience forced sex after periods of time when their levels of self‐efficacy are lower than their average levels of self‐efficacy. Furthermore, youth who are lower on their self‐efficacy compared to their peers are more likely to experience forced sex. Implications for prevention research are discussed. (Source: Journal of Research on Adolescence)

Indian, African experts to participate in HIV-AIDS conference
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 17:04:16 +0100 | The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News
Experts from India and East African nations will brainstorm ways to accelerate new preventive technologies for HIV-AIDS and to ensure greater role of low and middle-income economies in its vaccine research during a high-level technical session tomorrow. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)

OrCam: Technology for the Visually Impaired
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 17:01:58 +0100 | Disabled World
OrCam is an intuitive portable device with a smart camera mounted on the frames of a person's eyeglasses. The device uses the power of Artificial Vision to assist people who experience a visual impairment. OrCam recognizes products and text and speaks to the person using it through an earpiece. (Source: Disabled World)

3D image of malaria 'conductor' aids search for antimalarial drugs
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 16:03:16 +0100 | ScienceDaily Headlines
The first three-dimensional image capturing a critical malaria 'conductor' protein could lead to the development of a new class of antimalarial drugs. Researchers developed WEHI-842, a drug that blocks the malaria parasite protein plasmepsin V, killing the parasite. The discovery is a new step towards developing much needed new drugs for treating and preventing malaria. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

SAMHSA: HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:53:01 +0100 | PHPartners.org
SAMHSA addresses the issues of HIV, AIDS, and viral hepatitis by supporting mental health and addiction treatment services, HIV testing with pre- and post-test counseling, referrals for treatment, and testing for other infectious diseases. (Source: PHPartners.org)

Contraceptive Options for HIV-Positive WomenContraceptive Options for HIV-Positive Women
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:10:50 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
What factors should be considered when choosing a method of contraception for HIV-positive women? HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Africa: HIV and Aids Highlights
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:58:50 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Ethiopian Herald] Since the beginning of the epidemic, almost 78 million people have been infected with the HIV virus and about 39 million people have died of HIV. Globally, 35.0 million [33.2-37.2 million] people were living with HIV at the end of 2013. An estimated 0.8 per cent of adults aged 15-49 years worldwide are living with HIV, although the burden of the epidemic continues to vary considerably between countries and regions. Sub-Saharan Africa remains most severely affected, with nearly one in every 20 adults living (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)

Rwanda: Jendayi Frazer Slams Gen Karenzi Karake's Arrest
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:46:05 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[New Times] Former U.S. assistant secretary of state for African affairs Jendayi Frazer has strongly criticized western countries for repeatedly abusing the principle of Universal Jurisdiction, citing last month's arrest in the United Kingdom of Lt Gen Emmanuel Karenzi Karake as one of the latest examples of "new paternalism and barbarism". (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)

Malawi: Malawian Circumcised Men Most Likely to Be Infected By HIV, Research Shows
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 11:25:09 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Malawi24] Research conducted in Malawi revealed that circumcised men were the ones with a high prevalence of HIV rate in Malawi, Malawi24 can reveal. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)