HIV Symptoms | SINGAPORE GUM™
HIV Symptoms | SINGAPORE GUM™ @singaporegum_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) symptoms/signs in men/women, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Symptoms | SINGAPORE GUM™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
| Notes || Sampling Method |
Time to Results
Cost / Price
| 0-72 hours |
No test available
| || |
| 2 weeks (as short as 10-12 days) |
HIV DNA test
- A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) for HIV-1 proviral DNA, therefore a HIV DNA Test.
- Method: Proviral DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA Test, V1.5) This test uses primers SK145 and SKCC1B to define a sequence of 155 nucleotides within a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 gag gene.
- Usually used for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in neonates born to HIV+ mothers. As maternal antibodies circulate in the child for several months, the HIV antibody test would be positive.
- Also used for early HIV diagnosis in adults.
| 1 month |
HIV combo test
| || Fingerprick |
HIV rapid test
| 1 month |
HIV duo test
| || Venipuncture|
| 3 months |
| || HIV oral test /|
HIV saliva test /
HIV rapid test
| 3 months |
HIV blood test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV western blot test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV RNA test
| || Venipuncture|
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults.
Sat, 20 Sep 2014 12:40:11 +0100 | Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this review suggest that HAART plus chemotherapy may be beneficial in reducing disease progression compared to HAART alone in patients with severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma. For patients on HAART, when choosing from different chemotherapy regimens, there was no observed difference between liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal daunorubicin and paclitaxel.
Depression and social support among women living with the substance abuse, violence, and hiv/aids syndemic: a qualitative exploration - Illangasekare SL, Burke JG, Chander G, Gielen AC.
Sat, 20 Sep 2014 02:46:45 +0100 | SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated)
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA "syndemic" among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly ... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Trends in hospital admissions at a Department for Infectious Diseases in Italy from 1995 to 2011 and implications for health policies
Sat, 20 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | BioMed Central
Targeting the C-type Lectins-Mediated Host-Pathogen Interactions with Dextran.
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 22:25:02 +0100 | J Pharm Pharm Sci
This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
Namibia: Rising HIV Infections Threat to Coastal Economy
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 12:07:50 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Namibian]AT least 1 282 Namibians tested HIV-positive last year in the Erongo region alone, a figure which the Namibia Network of AIDS Service Organisations (Nanaso) says may hurt economic activities in the region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: 'Let Us Not Forget the Silent Killer'
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 09:38:53 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[NEWS]A former Managing Editor of The News Newspaper Joseph G. Bartuah has reminded Liberians and other folks on social media not to forget about the original silent killer, HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Demand for ARVs Still Outpaces Supply
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:43:07 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Observer]Despite a remarkable increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2003 and 2009, the number of people in need of the drugs continues to outpace the response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Provider-Patient Communication Regarding CVD RiskHIV Provider-Patient Communication Regarding CVD Risk
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:32:40 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
Are HIV clinicians sufficiently addressing CVD risk factors with their patients? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Uganda: Let's Fight Stigma Against Youths With HIV
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 06:45:14 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Observer]Uganda is acclaimed as a champion against HIV/Aids for decades, having made tremendous strides in containing the pandemic and reversing its spread. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NGO Empowers 22 HIV Positive Persons in Jigawa
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 05:47:01 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Leadership]A Jigawa-based NGO, Society for Community Awareness and Mobilisation (SOCHAM), on Thursday distributed working equipment to 22 persons living with HIV and AIDS in Hadejia town. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)